The pileated gibbon (Hylobates pileatus) is a primate in the gibbon family, Hylobatidae.
The pileated gibbon has sexual dimorphism in fur coloration: males have a purely black fur, while the females have a white-grey colored fur with only the belly and head black. The white and often shaggy hair ring around the head is common to both sexes.
The species has been identified as Endangered, and is listed in CITES Appendix I. Their main threat is habitat destruction, with the wild forest they live in being converted into farmland. This has led to local extinction in some areas. Also, like many other breeds of primate, they are hunted and captured for meat and to be sold into Wildlife smuggling. Many attempts have been made to survey and increase the species' numbers, both concerning their status in the wild, and in zoos.