The size of a small dog, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the largest member of the genus Vulpes and is well-known for its large bushy tail, which is often tipped with white. The fur is variable in colour, but is usually reddish-brown to flame-red above and white to black below; the lower limbs and the back of the ears are often black. Red foxes can produce 28 different vocalisations. The red fox’s tail is known as a brush, and can be used by the fox as a warm cover in cold weather. The male red fox is referred to as a dog, while the female is known as a vixen. They are found throughout North America but prefer the Pacific Northwest, The Great Lakes and the Eastern United States usually steering clear from the Midwestern United States. In Canada, they are found everywhere except for Nunavut and British Columbia.