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Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) is a species of venomous snake in the family Viperidae. Daboia is a monotypic genus of venomous Old World vipers. The single member species, D. russelii, is found in Asia throughout the Indian subcontinent, much of Southeast Asia, southern China and Taiwan. The species is named for Patrick Russell (1726–1805), a Scottish herpetologist who first described many of India's snakes, and the name of the genus is from the Urdu word meaning "that lies hid", or "the lurker". Apart from being a member of the big four snakes in India, Daboia is also one of the genera responsible for causing the most snakebite incidents and deaths among all venomous snakes on account of many factors, such as their wide distribution, generally aggressive demeanor, and frequent occurrence in highly populated areas.

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